The field of organizational behavior covers the body of knowledge derived from actions and attitudes exhibited within organizations. It can help managers understand the complexity within organizations, identify problems, determine the best ways to correct them, and establish whether the changes would make a significant difference. This course examines of human relations theory and individual, group, and organizational performance in relation to organizational structure in contemporary business and public agencies. It's an interdisciplinary field, drawing on concepts from a variety of subject areas. Covered are personality and attitudes, work motivation, interpersonal and group processes, organizational design and development, and decision making.
Upon successful completion of this course, participants will be able to:
- Define organizational behavior.
- Trace the historical roots of organizational behavior.
- Discuss the emergence of contemporary organizational behavior, including its precursors, the Hawthorne studies, and the human relations movement.
- Describe contemporary organizational behavior - its characteristics, concepts, and importance.
- Identify and discuss contextual perspectives on organizational behavior.
- Explain managerial perspectives on organizational behavior.
- Describe the manager's job in terms of managerial functions, roles, and skills.
- Describe the four main forces in the environment that post the most opportunities and problems for organizations today.
- Discuss how to manage for effectiveness from the perspective of organizational behavior.
- Define motivation.
- Explain need hierarchy theory and how it applies in organizations.
- Outline the basic assumptions of expectancy theory and its implications in organizations.
- Explain how goals can be set to motivate high levels of job performance.
- Describe ways in which jobs can be designed so as to enhance motivation.
- State the implications of the social information processing model.
- Define attitude and its three basic components.
- Describe two theories of job satisfaction.
- Identify the consequences of having dissatisfied employees.
- Describe ways of boosting job satisfaction.
- Distinguish between three fundamental forms of organizational commitment.
- Identify the benefits of having a committed workforce.
- Describe ways of developing organizational commitment.
- Distinguish between the concepts of prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination.
- State biases that can influence person perception without perceivers being aware of their influences.
- Demonstrate why the effective management of diversity is imperative for all kinds of organizations and the steps that organizations can take to ensure that different kinds of people are treated fairly and that the organization is able to take advantage of all they have to offer.
- Describe the two major forms of sexual harassment and the steps organizations can take to combat sexual harassment.
- Distinguish between affirmative action plans and diversity management programs.
- Define communication.
- Describe the various steps in the communication process.
- Distinguish between different forms of verbal media and their relative effectiveness.
- Identify the types of formal messages that flow in different directions within an organization chart.
- Describe how informal communication is different than formal communication in an organization.
- Identify various methods for improving organizational communication.
- Define power.
- Identify the four main types of position power and the four main types of personal power.
- Define organizational politics.
- Identify the major forms that organizational politics takes.
- Describe steps that can be taken to minimize the effects of organizational politics.
- Define and distinguish between various types of formal and informal groups.
- Discuss the role of norms in organizations and how they develop.
- Explain the social facilitation effect.
- Describe the social loafing effect and how it may be overcome.
- Define team and explain what makes a team different from an ordinary work group.
- Describe the general effectiveness of work teams.
- Identify ways of overcoming obstacles to team effectiveness.
- Summarize the nature of four important kinds of groups in organizations and how and why they help an organization achieve its goals.
- Define leadership and distinguish between leadership and management.
- Describe the trait approach to leadership.
- Identify the types of behavior that have been most strongly associated with effective leadership.
- Describe the leader-member exchange model of leadership.
- Differentiate between charismatic leaders and transformational leaders.
- Explain how leading teams differs from leading individuals.
- Describe the basic tenets of LPC contingency theory and how it may be applied.
- Explain the path-goal theory of leadership.
- Discuss situational leadership theory.
- Describe organizational citizenship behavior and how it may be promoted.
- Distinguish between prosocial behavior and cooperation.
- Identify factors that promote interpersonal cooperation.
- List the causes of conflict in organizations.
- Identify the positive and negative consequences of conflict in organizations.
- Outline techniques for managing conflict in organizations.
- Define stress and identify the various causes of stress in organizations.
- Discuss the major effects of stress on people in organizations.
- Identify various ways stress can be managed on the job.
- Identify the eight steps in the decision-making process.
- Outline the various categories of decisions that are made in organizations.
- Distinguish between the rational-economic and the administrative models of decision making.
- Explain how various cognitive biases operate when people make decisions.
- Identify various factors that contribute to imperfect decision making in organizations.
- Describe the conditions under which individuals make better decisions than groups, and vice versa.
- Describe the phenomenon of groupthink and ways of overcoming it.
- Demonstrate how the Delphi technique and the nominal group technique are used to improve the quality of decisions made by groups.
- State why people make unethical decisions in organizations and what can be done about it.
- Define organizational culture.
- Distinguish between dominant culture and subcultures.
- Outline culture's role in organizations.
- Identify factors that lead to the creation of organizational culture.
- List the tools through which organizational culture is transmitted.
- Describe the effects of organizational culture on organizational functioning.
- Summarize the factors responsible for getting organizational culture to change.
- Define creativity and describe the basic components of individual and team creativity.
- Define innovation and identify the basic components of innovation and the various stages of the innovation process.
- Define organizational structure.
- Distinguish between five aspects of organizational structure that are represented in an organization chart.
- Distinguish between functional organizations, product organizations, and matrix organizations.
- Describe the new form of organization known as the horizontal organization.
- Define organizational design.
- Distinguish between classical and neoclassical approaches to organizational design.
- Discuss the contingency approach to organizational design.
- Define the boundaryless organization.
- Explain the differences between the five organizational forms identified by Mintzterg.
- Identify two different types of interorganizational designs.
- Distinguish between different types of change in organizations, giving examples of each.
- Identify the three main ways in which organizations may change.
- Outline the general conditions under which organizational change is likely to occur.
- State why people are resistant to change in organizations and ways in which this resistance may be overcome.
- Define organizational development.
- Discuss four techniques of organizational development and describe the effectiveness of each.
- Discuss the sides of the ethical debate with respect to using OD techniques.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 – An Introduction to Organizational Behavior
The Meaning of Organizational Behavior
Historical Roots of Organizational Behavior
Classical Organization Theory
The Emergence of Organizational Behavior
Precursors of Organizational Behavior
The Hawthorne Studies
Human Relations Movement
Toward Organizational Behavior
Contemporary Organizational Behavior
Characteristics of the Field
The Importance of Organizational Behavior
Contextual Perspectives on Organizational Behavior
Systems and Contingency Perspectives
Chapter 1 Review Questions
Chapter 2 – Managing People and Organizations
Managerial Perspectives on Organizational Behavior
Management Functions, Roles, and Skills
Challenge 1: The Changing Social and Cultural Environment
Challenge 2: The Evolving Global Environment
Challenge 3: Advancing Information Technology
Challenge 4: Shifting Work and Employment Relationships
Managing for Effectiveness
Group- and Team-Level Outcomes
Chapter 2 Review Questions
Chapter 3 – Motivation
Definition of Motivation
Motivating by Meeting Basic Human Needs
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Equity Theory: The Importance of Being Fair
Balancing Outcomes and Inputs
Responding to Inequities on the Job
Expectancy Theory: Believing You Can Get What You Want
Three Components of Motivation
The Role of Motivation in Performance
Procedural Justice Theory
Goal Setting: Taking Aim at Performance Targets
Assign Specific Goals
Assign Difficult, But Achievable, Performance Goals
Provide Feedback Concerning Goal Attainment
Designing Jobs that Motivate
Job Enlargement: Doing More of the Same Kind of Work
Job Enrichment: Increasing Required Skills and Responsibilities
The Job Characteristics Model
The Motivating Potential Score
Job Design: The Social Information Processing Model
Chapter 3 Review Questions
Chapter 4 – Work Related Attitudes
What is an Attitude? A Definition.
Job Satisfaction: Feelings about our Work
Theories of Job Satisfaction and Their Implications
Tips for Boosting Job Satisfaction
Attachment to Companies: Organizational Commitment
Varieties of Organizational Commitment
Approaches to Developing Organizational Commitment
Negative Attitudes toward Co-Workers: Prejudice
Anatomy of Prejudice: Basic Distinctions
Strategies for Overcoming Workplace Prejudice: Managing a Diverse Workforce
Chapter 4 Review Questions
Chapter 5 – Organizational Communication & Power
The Basic Nature of Communication
The Communication Process and Its Role in Organizations
Oral and Written Communication: The Power of Words
Formal and Informal Communication
Formal Communication: Messages Directed Through Organizational Structure
Informal Communication: Beyond the Organization Chart
Strategies for Improving Organizational Communication
Power: Having an Impact On Others
Influence That Comes with the Office: Position Power
Influence That Comes from the Individual: Personal Power
Organizational Politics: Possible Abuses of Power
Chapter 5 Review Questions
Chapter 6 – Groups & Teams in Organizations
The Nature of Groups
What is a Group?
Formal and Informal Groups
Group Development Over Time: The Five-Stage Model
Group Dynamics: People Working with Others
Group Norms: Unspoken Rules of Group Behavior
Social Facilitation: Performing in the Presence of Others
Social Loafing: "Free Riding" When Working with Others
Teams: Empowered Work Groups
What is a Team? Key Characteristics
Types of Teams
Work Teams: What is the Payoff?
Teams at Work: How Good is Their Track Record?
Obstacles to Team Effectiveness and How to Overcome Them
Important Organizational Groups
Chapter 6 Review Questions
Chapter 7 – Leadership
What is Leadership?
The Trait Approach: Are Some People Really "Born Leaders"?
The Behavior Approach: What Do Leaders Do?
Two Critical Leadership Behaviors
Leaders and Followers
The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model: The Importance of Being in the "In-Group"
Charismatic Leaders: That "Something Special"
Transformational Leadership: Beyond Charisma
Leading Teams: Special Considerations
Contingency Theories of Leader Effectiveness
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory: Matching Leaders and Tasks
Path-Goal Theory: Leaders as Guides to Valued Goals
Situational Leadership Theory: Adjusting Leadership Style to the Situation
The Vroom and Yetton Model: Determining the Level of Subordinate Participation in Decision Making
Chapter 7 Review Questions
Chapter 8 – Prosocial Behavior, Cooperation, Conflict, & Stress
Prosocial Behavior: Helping Others
Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Above and Beyond Job Requirements
Whistle-Blowing: Helping through Dissent
Cooperation: Providing Mutual Assistance
Cooperation within Organizations
Cooperation between Organizations
Conflict: The Inevitable Result of Incompatible Interests
Causes of Conflict
Conflict Management Techniques
Stress in Organizations
What is Stress?
Causes of Stress
Managing Stress: Some Effective Techniques
Chapter 8 Review Questions
Chapter 9 – Making Decisions in Organizations
The Basic Nature of Organizational Decision Making
A General Model of Decision Making
Varieties of Organizational Decisions
Approaches to Decision Making in Organizations
The Rational-Economic Model: In Search of the Ideal Decision
March and Simon’s Administrative Model of Decision Making: Exploring the Limits of Human Rationality
Impediments to Optimal Individual Decisions
Cognitive Biases in Decision-Making: Framing and Heuristics
Escalation of Commitment: Throwing Good Money after Bad
Organizational Barriers to Effective Decisions
The Role of Information Technology
Group Decisions: Do Too Many Cooks Spoil the Broth?
Group Decisions: A Double-Edged Sword
Comparing Group and Individual Decisions: When Are Two (or More) Heads Better Than One?
Guidelines for Improving Group Decisions
The Delphi Technique
The Nominal Group Technique
The Challenge of Making Ethical Decisions
Why Do People Make Unethical Decisions in Organizations?
Chapter 9 Review Questions
Chapter 10 – Culture, Creativity, & Innovation
Organizational Culture: Its Basic Nature
Organizational Culture: A Definition and Core Characteristics
Cultures within Organizations: One or many?
Culture's Role in Organizations
The Formation and Maintenance of Organizational Culture
How is Organizational Culture Created?
Tools for Transmitting Culture
Organizational Culture: Its Consequences and Capacity to Change
The Effects of Organizational Culture
Why and How Does Organizational Culture Change?
Creativity in Individuals and Teams
Components of Individual and Team Creativity
Putting it all Together
The Process of Innovation
Components of Innovation: Basic Building Blocks
Stages of the Organizational Innovation Process
Chapter 10 Review Questions
Chapter 11 – Designing Effective Organizations
Structural Dimensions of Organizations
Hierarchy of Authority
Division of Labor
Span of Control
Line vs. Staff Positions
Departmentalization: Ways of Structuring Organizations
Functional Organizations: Departmentalization by Task
Product Organizations: Departmentalization by Type of Output
Matrix Organizations: Departmentalization by Both Function and Product
The Horizontal Organization: Structuring by Process
Organizational Design: Combining the Structural Elements of Organizations
Classical and Neoclassical Approaches: The Quest for the One Best Design
The Contingency Approach: Design Based on Environmental Conditions
Mintzberg's Framework: Five Organizational Forms
The Boundaryless Organization: A New Corporate Architecture
Interorganizational Designs: Going Beyond the Single Organization
Conglomerates: Diversified "Megacorporations"
Strategic Alliances: Joining Forces for Mutual Benefit
Chapter 11 Review Questions
Chapter 12 – Managing Organizational Change & Development
Forces for Organizational Change
The Process of Organizational Change: Four Basic Questions
Targets: What Is Changed?
Readiness for Change: When Will Organizational Change Occur?
Why Is Organizational Change Resisted?
How Can Resistance to Organizational Change be Overcome?
Organizational Development Interventions: Implementing Planned Change
1. Survey Feedback
2. Quality of Work Life Programs
3. Management by Objectives
4. Team Building
Special Issues in Organizational Development
The Effectiveness of Organizational Development: Does it Really Work?
Is Organizational Development Inherently Unethical? A Debate
Chapter 12 Review Questions
Review Question Answers and Rationales
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